Ministry of Russian Federation for Atomic Energy
MAYAK PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION
FETISOV, Viktor I.
Mayak General Director
DROZHKO, Evgeniy G.
Deputy Director for Environmental Protection
SUSLOV, Alexander P.
SAZHNOV, Vladimir K.
Radiochemical Plant Director
DZEKUN, Evgeniy G.
Radiochemical Plant Chief Engineer
ROVNYI, Sergey I.
Radiochemical Plant Chief Engineer
MALYKH, Yuriy A.
Radioisotope Plant Director
31 Lenin Street
454065, Ozersk (CHelyabinsk-65, Russia
Phone: 7 (873) 140-4664
Fax: 7 (873) 140-4665
The first reactor facility was put into operation on June 19, 1948. This day may be considered birthday of the MAYAK Production
Association and the nuclear industry of the country, as a whole. During a short period of time, they succeeded in developing a very
powerful nuclear production process.
In the 70’s, along with the basic defense production facilities, some new production lines were introduced or further developed,
specifically: reprocessing of spent fuel from nuclear power plants, submarines and icebreakers, radioisotope production or separation
and production of isotope sources on their basis. All those activities made it possible for MAYAK to become an economically stable
enterprise and start exporting the products.
In the late 80’s, the political and economic changes in Russia resulted in introducing some new activities at MAYAK, mostly
associated with defense production business.
| Major Activities of MAYAK|
There are two operational reactors for defense and commercial needs at MAYAK. Five other
uranium-graphite reactors were decommissioned several years ago.
The unique neutronics and operational specifications of the reactors make it possible to produce a wide range of isotopes, including
14C, highly radioactive 60Co (up to 300 Ci/g), 192Ir (up to 700 Ci/g) and others, thereby meeting all the production needs of the
Radioisotope Plant, as well as rapidly growing needs for the national radioisotope market.
At one of the MAYAK reactor facilities, a new process of radiation doping of silicon billets, up to
dia.105 mm (4’’) x 450 mm, has been brought to an industrial scale. As early as in 1993, this process
was applied to the silicon rods with the diameter of up to 129 mm (5’’).
Much attention is paid to the improvements of the equipment, as well as to decontamination, decommissioning and disposal needs.
Many processes and equipment, being developed at the facility, are used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel or producing
radionuclides, e.g. 60Co. The unique irradiator was designed and is currently used for the production of the ion-selective film for
diminutive power sources. The thermoelastic tubes production process has been worked out. Gamma-sterilization of surgical
instruments and medical products has become a routine activity.
Spent Fuel Reprocessing and Regeneration Plant
The plant was originated from the first Russian radiochemical facility for weapons
plutonium production that was put into operation in 1948. The operation of a new
plant started in 1977, and, since that time, it has been involved in spent fuel
reprocessing from PWR and FBR reactors of VVER-440, BN-350, BN-600 types,
as well as from submarine, icebreaker and research reactors. The spent fuel for
reprocessing was received from various domestic and foreign power plants, i.e.
"Paksh" in Hungary, "Dukovany" and "Rzhehzh" in Czech Republic, "Bogunitsy" in
Slovakia, "Loviisa" in Finland, "Greisfeld" in Germany and "Kozlodyi" in Bulgaria.
The plant has a spent fuel storage pool, three spent fuel dissolution process lines, modified PUREX extraction process for separation
of plutonium, neptunium and technetium.
After three-year hold-up in the power plant pool, the spent fuel assemblies are transported to the reprocessing plant by special trains.
The reprocessing provides:
For the last few years, the engineering staff of the plant has been involved in the R&D activities aimed at developing the HLW
separation and medium level waste (MLW) cementation or bitumenization systems.
- uranium extraction in the form of the uranyl nitrate melt with the enrichment 2,0-2,5% by 235U (BWR recycling);
- plutonium extraction in the form of Pu dioxide;
- neptunium extraction;
- trial powder granulate at the pilot plant for further MOX fuel production with plutonium content 5,0-25,0% (for FBR
reactors);immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) in the stable glass matrix (phosphate glass) in Joule-heated melter. This
matrix serves as a barrier preventing the radionuclide release into the environment. The vitrified waste is sealed into casks and
transported to the storage facility.
The history of the Radioisotope Plant dates back to 1962. Currently, it is one of the major suppliers of radioisotope sources in Russia.
Many well-known companies from UK, France, the USA, Germany are among its customers.
The ionizing and heat sources, produced by the plant, are very widely used in many industries, agriculture, medicine, etc.
The plant products include:
Sources and preparation packages have been certified for Special Form Material according to the Regulations for Safe
Transportation of Radioactive Materials, IAEA, 1985.
They are used in automatic fire and smoke detectors, static eliminators, gas chromatographs and gas analysers.
These sources are used in anti-icing systems of helicopters and aircrafts, thickness and density meters and radiation facilities.
- Gamma- and X-ray
They are intended to be used for industrial and medical irradiation needs, as well as for flaw detectors, analytical and
measurement devices and equipment, and aerospace systems.
- Fast neutron sources
They have wide applications in moisture meters, equipment for rock proximate analysis and oil well logging.
- 90Sr and 238Pu heat sources
They comprise an integral part of thermal power generators to be used for power supply in space, ocean and other remote
- Radionuclide preparations (14C, 137Cs, 90Sr, 241Am, 238Pu, 237Np, 147Pm)
They are required for most of the current biological, medical and agricultural research needs.
All the products of the Radioisotope Plant meet the international quality assurance standards. Being one of the leading exporters in this
field, the Radioisotope Plant supplies its products to many countries, and has received no claims from its customers so far.
All the products of the Plant are in the process of continuous improvement. The engineering staff is always ready to meet the
customers’ requirements and introduce all the necessary improvements to the design.
All the products are delivered to the customers in special transportation casks that meet the IAEA Type A and B requirements
identified in Regulations for Safe Transportation of Radioactive Materials (1990).
Central Research Laboratory
The specialists of the Central Research Laboratory deal with problems
regarding defense and commercial production, as well as safety assurance and
environmental monitoring issues.
The major focus is given on the following research trends:
Experimental Scientific Research Centre
- Radiochemical processes
- new types of fuel for power reactors;
- NPP spent fuel reprocessing;
- solid and liquid waste treatment, including its vitrification;
- ionizing sources;
- analytical process control.
- Environmental protection
- radiation monitoring;
- population radiation loads;
- radionuclide transport.
- Reactors physics and processes
- nuclear safety of the production processes;
- development of reactors for isotope production;
- reactors decommissioning and disposal.
- Commercial production
- high-energy permanent magnets on rare-earth metal basis,
- semiconductors radiation processes,
- quarts optical fiber.
Experimental Scientific Research Centre (ESRC) was founded in 1958 after
the 1957 explosion to solve the problems connected with a big-scale
radioactive contamination of the vast territories. The focus was given on the
studies of the basic mechanisms of radionuclide behaviour and contaminant
transport in different environmental media, as well as on implementation of
specific activities for remediation of the contaminated lands and waters and
studies of the ionizing irradiation impact on the environment.
Currently, the Center is a highly-developed organization with the experimental basis of highly potential and advanced methods for
analysis and evaluation of practically all radionuclides and their behavior in various objects and media. For the last few years, the
Centre has established wide international relations in the sphere of applied radioecology. One of its accomplishments is that over 80%
of the Eastern Urals lands have been decontaminated and returned to the agricultural sector of the economy. The specialists of the
Center have been actively involved in the work on utilization of the contaminated soils after the Chernobyl accident.
Research activities of the first priority:
Environmental Remediation Activities
- Radionuclide agrochemistry
- Agricultural radioecology
- Forestry radioecology
- Water resources radioecology
- Environmental monitoring
- Radiation physics and chemistry
- Environmental impact of ionizing radiation
After the early years of its operation, MAYAK faced a great number of environmental problems. Contaminated soils and water
reservoirs, processing of millions of curies of liquid waste and thousands of tons of solid waste were among those of the major
During the last few years, they have managed to develop, install and put into operation the
first, and still the only one in Russia, vitrification facility for liquid waste immobilization. Its
operation is very efficient. Karachai lake that contains 120 mln Ci of radioactive waste in
it, has been practically vitrified. The Russian Goverment has adopted a comprehensive
Remediation Program that has been currently carried out. Everything is being done at
MAYAK to become a waste-free enterprise.
Defense Conversion Production
Drastic changes in the political and economic situation in Russia have caused intensive development of the defense conversion
production at the former military site. There are several main areas of the defense conversion activities.
First of all, these activities are associated with the instrumentation and engineering plant. Its defense conversion products include but
are not limited by telescopic antennas for radio sets, radio circuit boards, flow meters, level meters and thermometers of different
types. The plant has already started the trial production of DC precision engines for audio- and video equipment and other
state-of-the-art information processing equipment.
The Special Design Bureau has been organized at MAYAK to develop highly precise instruments for analysis of extremely pure
A few process lines at one of the plants have been redesigned for the production of rare-earth high-coercive magnets. These magnets
are for the customers all around the country, but they are also used at MAYAK for the AC engines manufacture. The magnets are
ready for export as well.
Other activities include but are not limited to the following:
production of ion-selective film and thermoelastic tubes;
production of high-pure silicon radiation doping;
development of a complete-cycle production process to manifacture polished silicon plates for microelectronics;
production of AC engines and fabrication of special electric tools on their basis;
optical fiber production;
production of TV sets and TV tubes;
production of aperture (shadow) masks, luminous compounds, cathode-heating assemblies, gas adsorbers, etc.